胜博发娱乐 - 硬货 | 法国斗牛犬 FCI 标准中英对照版

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注:法国斗牛犬中文规范由CKU翻译自FCI法国斗牛犬规范英文版( 2015年4月17日),该规范中文版已发布于CKU新官网-犬种百科

FCI-Standard N° 101

FCI-国内纯种犬规范第 101号

FRENCH BULLDOG (Bouledogue Français)

法国斗牛犬

17.04.2015/ EN

2015年4月17日/英文版

▲ 本图片为FCI犬种规范配图,

其实不肯定代表该犬种的现实范例

TRANSLATION:Translator Ian Nicholson /FR/. Revised by RenéeSporre-Willes, Raymond Triquet and Claude Guintard.

翻译:伊恩·尼古拉斯/法国/

校正:勒内·斯波尔-威尔斯, 雷蒙德·特里凯,克劳德·奎塔德

ORIGIN: France

来源国:法国

UTILIZATION: Companion and Toy dog.

用处:伴侣犬、玩赏犬

FCI-CLASSIFICATION: Group 9 Companion and Toy Dogs. Section 11 Small Molossian Dogs. Without working trial.

FCI分组:第9组  伴侣犬与玩具犬,第11类 小型獒犬类,无需任务犬测试

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY: Probably decending, like allmastiffs, from the Epirus and the Roman Empire molossers, relativeof the Bulldog of Great Britain, the Alaunts (tribe of the MiddleAges), the mastiffs and small-type mastiffs of France. The bulldogwe know is the product of different crossings done by enthusiasticbreeders in the popular quarters of Paris in the 1880s. During thatperiod, the Bulldog was a dog belonging to Parisian market porters,butchers and coachmen, it soon won over high society and theartistic world by its particular appearance and character. It rapidlybecame popular. The first breed club was founded in 1880 in Paris.The first registration dates from 1885 and the first standard wasestablished in 1898, the year in which the French Kennel Clubrecognized the French Bulldog breed. The first dog of this breed wasshown at an exhibition as early as 1887. The standard, modified in1931-1932 and 1948, was reformulated in 1986 by H.F. Reant withthe collaboration of R. Triquet (F.C.I. publication 1987), then in1994 by Violette Guillon (F.C.I. publication 1995) and in 2012 bythe French Bulldog Club committee.

汗青沿革:或许就像一切的獒犬,如伊庇鲁斯犬(epirus)和罗马帝国莫罗山犬(molosses)(英国斗牛犬的近亲),阿兰犬(alans-中世纪部落),法国小型獒犬等一切獒犬同样,我们所理解到的斗牛犬是由热情的繁育者在19世纪80年月的巴黎所繁育的种类。在那临时期,斗牛犬为巴黎市场的搬运工,屠夫与马车夫所用,此犬种不久便以其共同的外貌和个性驯服了下层社会和艺术界。在那临时期,斗牛犬巴黎市场里的搬运工,屠夫与马车夫所用,尔后不久,该犬种便以其共同的外貌和个性驯服了下层社会和艺术界,敏捷风行起来。该犬种的第一个俱乐部于1880年在巴黎建立,第一个注册注销要追溯到1885年,第一个犬种规范于1898年建立,在这一年中,法国“法国犬业协会”承认了法国斗牛犬这一种类。此犬种首次展出的工夫为1887年。上述规范于193一、1932与1948年进行了修订,于1986年由H.F.里安特(H.F.Reant)和R.特里奎特(R.Triquet)合作进行从新修改(F.C.I于1987年公布),随后法国斗牛犬俱乐部委员会在与R.特里奎特合作的状况下,于1994年又进行了从新阐释。

GENERAL APPEARANCE: The type is of a small-sizedmolossian. A powerful dog for its small size, short, stocky, compactin all its proportions, smooth-coated, with a snub nose, erect ears anda naturally short tail. Must have the appearance of an active,intelligent, very muscular dog, of a compact build with a solid bonestructure. No point is exaggerated compared to the others, whichcould spoil the dog’s general harmony, in appearance and inmovement.

整体外形:是一种典范的小型莫罗山犬。体形小,身短,牢固无力,比例紧凑,被毛顺滑,脸短,翘鼻,竖耳,天然的短尾。该犬种必需展现出沉闷的性情特色,聪慧,肌肉发达,身材构造紧凑,骨架牢固。没有需要过火夸大某一特征,招致毁坏犬只本身在外形与动静上的整体和谐性。

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS: The length of the body –between the point of the shoulder and the point of the buttocks –slightly surpasses the height at the withers.The length of muzzle is about 1/6 of the total length of the head.

紧张比例身长 — 肩点与臀尖之间的长度,应略微超越肩胛骨的高度。口吻的长度约占头部总长度的1/6。

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT: Sociable, lively, playful,possessive and keen companion dog.

行为/天性:敌对,生动,好游玩,占据欲强的伴侣犬

HEAD: Must be strong, broad and square, covered by the skin of thehead which forms symmetrical folds and wrinkles, without excess.

头部:必需强壮,宽,成方形;头部皮肤造成对称的褶皱和皱纹,但褶皱量不适度

CRANIAL REGION

颅部地区

Skull: Broad, almost flat from ear to ear, domed forehead.Proeminent superciliary arches, separated by a particularlydeveloped furrow between the eyes. The furrow must not extendonto the skull. External occipital protuberance is barely developed. 

头骨:宽,两耳之间几近扁平,前额隆起呈半球状。眉弓隆起明显,被两眼间共同的皱纹所离开。两眼之间的皱纹不得延长至头骨,枕外隆突几乎未发育。

Stop: Pronounced.

额段:明显。

FACIAL REGION

面部地区

FACIAL REGION: The head of the Bulldog is characterized by ashortening of the maxillary-nasal part as well as a slight tomoderate slope of the nose backwards. The nose is slightlyupturned (“snub nose”).

面部地区:法国斗牛犬的头部极具特征,上颌骨至鼻部间隔较短,同时鼻前端过度向后歪斜,并轻微上翘,(“狮子鼻”)

Nose: Black, broad, snubbed, with symmetrical and well openednostrils, slanting towards the rear. The slope of the nostrils as well asthe upturned nose must, however, allow normal nasal breathing.

鼻:呈黑色,宽,扁而上翘。鼻孔对称,开阔,向后歪斜。同时,鼻孔的歪斜及上翘不能阻碍鼻部的正常呼吸。

Muzzle: Very short, broad, with concentric symmetrical folds.

口吻:短而宽,两侧褶皱以口吻为中心对称散布。

Lips: Thick, a little loose and black. The upper lip meets the lowerlip at its middle, completely covering the teeth.

The profile of the upper lip is descending and rounded. The tonguemust never show when the dog is not excited.

唇:厚,黑色且略松弛。高低唇在中间相连,并齐全将牙齿掩盖。

上唇的表面呈圆形,并下垂。非兴奋的形态下,该犬种的舌头必需从不外露。

Jaws/Teeth: Broad and powerful. The lower jaw projects in front ofthe upper jaw and turns up. The arch of the lower incisors isrounded. The jaw must not show lateral deviation, or torsion.The gap between the incisors of the upper and the lower jawshould not be strictly delimited, the essential condition beingthat the upper and the lower lips meet to completely cover theteeth. The lower incisors surpass the upper incisors. Sufficientlydeveloped incisives and canines. Complete bite is desirable.

颌/牙齿:颌部宽,强壮。下颌比上颌靠前,且下颌向上。下门齿向上拱起,呈弧形。颌部不能出现横向偏离,或者歪曲。高低门齿之间的间隔没有严格的界定,但当高低唇闭合时必需能齐全掩盖牙齿。下门齿比上门齿靠前。犬齿发育优越,尖利,且有完满的剪状咬合。

Cheeks: Well developed.

面颊:面颊肌肉发达。

Eyes: Clearly visible eyes, striking with lively expression, set low,quite far from the nose and the ears, dark coloured, rather large,rounded, showing no trace of white (sclera) when the dog is lookingstraight forward. Rims of eyelids must be black.

眼睛:眼睛清晰可辨,伴有惹人瞩目的生动脸色,地位低,且远离鼻部与耳部。眼睛呈深色,大且圆,当犬向前看时,不露出白色(巩膜)。眼睑边沿必需为黑色。

Ears: Medium size, wide at the base and rounded at the top. Set highon the head, but not too close together, carried erect. The ear is opentowards the front. The skin must be fine and soft to the touch.

耳朵:中等大小,根部宽,尖部圆。双耳位于头部的较高地位,两耳间距大,立耳。耳孔口向前。用手触摸耳部皮肤细腻,柔嫩。

NECK: Short, powerful, slightly arched, without dewlap, broadenstowards the shoulder.

颈部短,强壮,略成拱形,无垂皮,向肩部扩大变宽

BODY

躯干

Topline: Rising progressively, but not excessively, from thewithers towards the loin. That conformation – also called roachbackis typical for the breed. 

顶线:从马肩隆至腰部逐步回升,但其实不过火,此构造也称作弓背,是该犬种典范的背线。

Back: Broad and muscular, firm without slackness.

背:宽阔,肌肉强壮,牢固,不松弛

Loin: Short, broad and arched.

腰:短而宽,呈拱形。

Croup: Well sloping.

臀部:天然歪斜。

Chest: Cylindrical and well let down (slightly under the elbows);very well sprung ribs, so-called “barrel shaped”. Fore chest, broad and square-shaped, seen from the front.

胸:呈圆柱形,天然下垂(稍微低于肘部),肋骨扩大优越,天然的出现出桶状。早年方看,前胸宽阔且呈方形

Underline and belly: Tucked up but not whippety.

下腹线和腹部:天然收缩,但不像惠比特般收缩紧。

TAIL: Naturally short, ideally long enough to cover the anus, setlow, rather straight, thick at the base and tapering at the tip.

A kinked, knotted, broken or relatively long tail that does notreach beyond the point of the hocks, is admitted. It is carriedlow. Even in action, the tail must not rise above the horizontal.

:天然短尾,现实的长度应足够掩盖住肛门,地位低,相称直。尾根部较厚,尖部较细。

天然打结或歪曲的断尾,或是绝对较长的尾但长度不超越跗关节,是可以承受的。尾始终坚持较低,即便在静止中也能坚持在身材水平线下列。

LIMBS

FOREQUARTERS

四肢

前躯

General appearance: Forelegs upright (and straight) seen in profile and from the front.

整体外形:从正面和后面观察,前腿垂直于地面(且笔挺)。

Shoulder: Must be well laid back.

肩:必需天然后倚。

Upper arm: Short, thick, muscular, slightly curved.

上臂:短,厚,肌肉牢固,轻微弯曲。

Elbows: Close and tight to the body.

肘:紧凑的凑近身材。

Forearm: Short, straight and muscular. Carpus (Wrist): Solid and short.

前臂:短,直,肌肉强健。

腕骨(腕关节):牢固,短。

Metacarpus (Pastern): Short and slightly oblique seen in profile.

掌骨(系部):短,从正面看稍微歪斜。

Forefeet: Round, compact, of small dimension, i.e. «cat feet»,turning slightly outward. The toes are tight, nails short, thickand black.

前足:浑圆饱满,紧凑,尺寸较小,相似于猫的足部,并轻微向外。脚趾紧凑,脚趾甲短,厚,呈黑色。

LIMBS

HINDQUARTERS

四肢

后躯

General appearance: The hindlegs are strong and muscular, alittle longer than the forelegs, thus raising the hindquarters. Thelegs are upright as seen both in profile and from behind.

整体外形:后肢强壮,肌肉牢固,较前肢略长,因尔后驱略高。不管从正面前面观察,腿都是垂直的。

Thigh: Well muscled, firm.

大腿:肌肉发达,牢固。

Hock joint: Quite well let down, neither too angulated nor toostraight. Tarsus : solid.

跖部:天然下垂,不太弯也不太直。跗骨:牢固。

Metatarsus (Rear pastern): Short.

后腿系部:短。

Hind feet: Round, compact, turning neither inward nor outward.

后足:浑圆饱满,紧凑,既不向内弯曲也不向外弯曲。

GAIT/MOVEMENT: The legs moving parallel to the medianplane of the body, whether seen in front or in profile. Free,powerful and smooth movement.

步态/动静:早年面和正面观察,静止时四肢与身材正中面平行,静止自若,无力,晦涩。

SKIN: Firm.

皮肤紧实

COAT

被毛

Hair: Smooth coat, close, glossy and soft, without undercoat.

毛质:被毛顺滑,密实,有光芒,柔嫩,无底毛。

Colour: fawn, brindled or not, with or without white spotting.

毛色:浅黄褐色,不管有没有花纹,或有没有白色雀斑。

Coat with colouring:

被毛色彩:

Brindle: Fawn coat moderately characterized by transversaldark brindling creating a ‘tiger-marked’ effect, stronglybrindled coats must not cover out the fawn ground colour. Ablack mask may be present. Limited white spotting is admissible.

虎斑色:整体为浅黄褐色被毛,此中有显著的横向花纹出现出老虎被毛花纹的成果,但虎斑色被毛不能遮蔽住浅黄褐色的底色。若该犬为虎斑色被毛,那么面部可以有黑面罩。而且有少许的白色雀斑是可以承受的。

Fawn: Solid coat, from light fawn to dark fawn, sometimespresenting a paler colouring of the inclined parts, with orwithout a black mask, although masked subjects are preferred.Sometimes accompanied by limited white spotting.

浅黄褐色:纯色被毛,从浅黄褐色到深黄褐色,偶然在歪斜部位伴有稍浅的着色,面部能否为黑色都可承受,但面部为黑色最好。偶然也会伴有少许白色雀斑。

Coat with white spotting:

被毛中带有白色雀斑:

Brindled with moderate or important white spotting: So-called‘pied’, the spotting being ideally distributed over the entiresubject. Some blotches on the skin are admissible.

虎斑色被毛中带有过量或显著的白色雀斑:此被毛称作“杂色”,且雀斑平均散布在被毛中为最好。皮肤上带有雀斑也能够承受。

Fawn with moderate or important white spotting: So-called‘fawn and white’, the spotting being ideally distributed over theentire dog. Some blotches of the skin are tolerated. The nose isalways black, in all coat colours, never brown or blue. The allwhitesubjects provided the edge of eyelids and nose are black –are admitted but not bred for, because of a risk of deafness.

浅黄褐色被毛中带有过量或显著的白色雀斑:此种被毛称为“浅黄褐色和白色被毛”,白色雀斑平均散布在犬的全身为最好。皮肤上带有一些雀斑是可以承受的。不管被毛为什么种色彩,鼻部色彩都应是黑色,棕色或者蓝色是不被承受的。整体毛色为白色,眼睑处和鼻部为黑色的犬也视为可以承受的,但不推荐作为种犬繁育下一代,因为此种色彩的犬有较高的失聪危险。

SIZE AND WEIGHT

尺寸和分量

Height at the withers: 

Males: 27–35 cm. 

Females: 24–32 cm. 

A deviation of 1 cm above and below the standard is tolerated.

肩高:

公犬:27-35厘米

母犬:24-32厘米

丈量时偏差在一厘米以内是可以承受的

Weight: 

Males: 9–14 kg. 

Females: 8–13 kg. 

500 g more than the standard weight is allowed when the subjectis typical.

分量:

公犬:9-14公斤

母犬:8-13公斤

在犬只十分优秀典范的状况下,分量超越规范分量500克是容许的。

FAULTS:Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered afault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regardedshould be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon thehealth and welfare of the dog.

缺点:任何与上述各点规范的背离均视为缺点,其缺点严重性应严格地与其缺点的水平,和该缺点对犬只的安康、福利造成的影响成比例。

• Strongly flecked with black brindle with white coat.

• Fawn and white coat strongly red speckled.

• In fawn coats, deep black trace extending along the spine. 

• White stockings in brindles and fawns. 

• Light-coloured nails.

• 黑色虎斑带白色并搀杂明显雀斑

• 浅黄褐色和白色被毛中有明显的红色雀斑

• 浅黄褐色的被毛中伴有深黑色纹理扩大在脊椎上

• 虎斑色和浅黄褐色的狗腿部为白色

• 指甲色彩浅

SEVERE FAULTS:

 • Overtyped, exaggerated breed characteristics. 

• Muzzle too long or excessively short. 

• Tongue visible when mouth is closed. 

• Light eyes (hawk eye). 

• Horizontal topline from withers to loin. 

• Excessive depigmentation of the lips, nose, eyelids, the rim ofwhich should never be entirely depigmented. 

• Pincer bite.

严重缺点:

• 犬只的体征过火夸大该犬种特色

• 口吻过长或过短

• 当犬只的口闭合时,舌头可见

• 眼睛色彩浅(鹰眼)

• 背线从肩胛骨至腰部出现水平

• 在唇部,鼻部,眼睑边沿处等绝不应出现齐全退色的部位,出现出适度的退色

• 水平咬合

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS:

• Aggressive or overly shy dog. 

• Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalitiesshall be disqualified. 

• Lacks type: insufficient ethnic characteristics which result inthe dog not really resembling other subjects of the breed. 

• Completely closed nostrils. 

• Torsion or lateral deviation of the jaw, resulting in the tongueconstantly being visible. 

• Dog with lower incisors articulating behind upper incisors. 

• Dog with permanently visible canines (fangs), mouth beingclosed. 

• Heterochrome eyes (wall eye). 

• Colour of nose other than black. 

• Ears not carried erect. 

• Taillessness or ingrown tail. 

• Dewclaw on hindquarters. 

• Reversed hock. 

• Long, wired-haired or woolly coat.

• Colour not in accordance with what is prescribed in thestandard, namely black, black with fawn markings (blackand tan) and all dilutions of black with or without whitespotting. 

• Size and weight outside the standard limits. 

• Respiratory distress. 

• Deafness.

失格缺点:

•  犬只要攻打性或适度羞涩

• 任安在身材和行为上明显失常的犬只应视为失格

• 体征缺点:犬种个性不足招致犬只与该犬种其余犬只不同

• 两只鼻孔靠的太近/鼻孔闭合

• 上颌或下颌歪曲,或者横向偏离,招致舌头长期处于可见形态

• 犬的下门牙明显位于上门牙前面

• 当犬只闭嘴时,犬齿(尖牙)长期处于可见形态

• 异色眼睛(角膜白斑)

• 鼻部色彩为黑色之外的色彩

• 耳朵不是正确直立形态

• 无尾或尾巴向内生长

• 后肢上长有狼爪

• 跗关节外翻

• 长毛,刚毛,或像羊毛般的被毛

• 犬只色彩不契合犬种规范中规则的色彩,即纯黑色,黑色带棕褐色花纹(铁包金)和一切带有或不带有白色雀斑的退色的黑色

• 尺寸和分量超越规范限制

• 呼吸艰难

• 耳聋

N.B.

• Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fullydescended into the scrotum. 

• Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typicalconformation, should be used for breeding.

• 公犬具有两个明显正常且齐全置于阴囊的睾丸

• 只要身材性能和临床体现安康的,具有典范犬种构造的犬只,才可用于滋生。

The latest amendments are in bold characters.

最新修改的局部以黑体字显示。

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